Internet law refers to the legal standards and legislation that govern the use and operations of the internet in all its forms and appearance. It is also known as Cyber law.
There is no specific or stable source of Internet Law as it relates to rules of practice and procedure as it is in other areas of the law, but it is made up of principles, rules, and conventions from a number of traditions and jurisprudence such as law of contract, privacy law, commercial law, etc. that predates internet law.
The scope of Internet law includes but not limited to the under-listed:
- Laws related to transactions in virtual or digital currency
- Laws related to the creation or development of websites
- Laws regulating Internet Service Providers
- Laws related to the online use of trademarks
- Laws related to passing off action or resolution of conflicts over domain names
- Laws related to web page linking
- Laws related to infringement of intellectual property and rights online
The Internet Law may lack Judicial Precedent since the use, and conventional or global acceptance of the internet is relatively new and regularly evolving. Thus legal practitioners and litigant are usually faced with so much uncertainty regarding what is allowed based on Internet Law and judicial decisions more often than not will not be guided by the doctrine of stare decisis. Stare
Decisis is a Latin word translated in English which means “decided.” It is the legal principle of determining points in litigation according to precedent.
Courts or judges most time embark on a solo journey of exploration of the Law as they deem fit and there is so much to learn and discover and to decide as it relates to evidence and legal admissibility of same. Most judges in the bid to avoid the miscarriage or travesty of justice and persuaded to apply other systems or principles of law in other fields in the interest of justice order to resolve cases judicially and judiciously.
Internet Jurisdictions and Regulations:
There is strict censoring in nations like Iran, China, and Saudi Arabia. There are four ways to view the Internet in these climes which significantly include:
- Laws: Since Cyber Space is generally liberal and unrestricted, Internet Law is considered an instrument of behavioral shaping and policy management. It serves as checks to deviant behaviors such as gambling, child pornography, and fraudulent activities online.
The major challenge facing the practicability of Internet Law in this regards is how to enforce compliance against offenses or how to prosecute offenders for an Internet site developed on the other side of the world. These fluctuations and inconsistencies are yet to be harmonized.
- Norms: Human behavior world over is regulated by cultural norms, the operation of the internet can also be used to fill the emptiness left by formal regulations. An online moderator or forum administrator can delete inappropriate comments made by online using going above and beyond legal requirements and rely on social norms to enforce compliance.
- Markets: The dynamics of online marketplace also influence what happens online. Detested behaviors will be refused and go into extinction. In the same vein, where there is low demand but high supply, sellers will need to offer more dissimilar or exceptional options. Uniqueness is the primary determinant of the sales of any product online.
- Architecture: “Architecture” in the Internet parlance means the actual technological limitations of the internet. This consists of everything that affects how information can be transmitted on the internet, from search engines and filters to encryption and coding.
Drafting of legislation must take the above-listed views into cognizance to be able to enact a practicable and effective Internet Law that will be relevant in any jurisdiction in the 21st Century.
The Peculiarity of Internet Law:
The digital and complex nature of the internet and the potential liabilities which it bears makes it unavoidable mandatory for handlers of Internet Laws to be flexible in accommodating myriad of actual and speculative potentials of the field of law.
Furthermore, it is important to note that the internet is a global interface and most transaction done through it are digital in nature from different ends and jurisdiction; it may be impracticable to be utterly bound by the laws of any a specific jurisdiction of a geographical authority. The existing procedural, adjectival and substantive law of a single country’s government may not to entirely sufficient to adjudicate over a dispute arising from the internet. A school of thought may submit that communities should abide by specific international regulations; others are of the view that the Internet should be legally operated as a terrestrial realm of its own, independent of national or local policy or procedural rules.
Online Marketing Policy
Before now, there was no hard or fast rule as it pertains to policies on how internet business owners conduct their marketing; Government was not legally equipped to resolve legal issues arising from such transactions.
In recent times, the Federal Trade Commission investigates and penalizes parties for using “unjust and misleading marketing” strategies as well as unfair competition. Despite to progress recorded so far, it should be noteworthy that offenders are still very mostly deceptive due to the complexities of the Internet and with the aid of illegal service providers.
Unfair and deceptive marketing generally pertains to the following:
- Health-related affirmations without medical or scientific proof.
- False or fraudulent misrepresentation about items or services.
- Describing abnormal results as distinctive.
- Misrepresentation of labels. For instance adding “No Sugar”, when you know there is high sugar.
- Running a Fake news website, or purchasing website reviews
- Fooling web searchers into registering for spurious, repeat-billing situations via negative option tactics by words to scam them into accepting.
- Masking ads to seem like regular web page material.
- Giving out the details of customers without their consent.
- Failure to labeling tags after promotions have been paid.
- Making purchaser with other people’s credit cards or billing addresses without authorization.
- By means of tricky pop-ups to solicit people’s details such as email address or telephone numbers.
- By sending off promotional texts to online users without authorization.
Responsibilities of Websites:
- Make specific disclosures.
- Transparency about partnerships, sponsors, and endorsements.
- Accept legal responsibility for freelance marketers.
- Refund any money collected if you abandon any project or if you are unable to deliver on the agreed terms.
- Keep away from starting a new venture with a dissimilar name after an FTC inquiry.
Formal Policies Regulating Online Marketing:
- SECTION 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act (FTC Act)
- TCPA: (Telephone Consumer Protection Act) is a federal statute enacted in 1991 designed to safeguard consumer privacy. This legislation restricts telemarketing communications via voice calls, SMS texts, and fax.
- CAN-SPAM ACT: The Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography And Marketing Act of 2003, signed into law by President George W. Bush on December 16, 2003, established the United States’ first national standards for the sending of commercial e-mail and requires the Federal Trade Commission to enforce its provisions
- DOT COM DISCLOSURES: Guide Rule 1: Place Disclosures close to the things they’re referencing and ensure they are understandable to an average person. “Clear and conspicuous” is the legal language custom of all terms of service, privacy and marketing disclosures both online and off.
- NATIVE ADVERTISING GUIDELINES: These guidelines provide clear recommendations and examples of what is and are not acceptable regarding native digital advertising
- FTC BIZOPP RULES: The Business Opportunity Rule requires business opportunity sellers to give prospective buyers specific information to aid them to evaluate a business opportunity, consequently ensuring that the potential purchasers have the information they need to assess the risks of buying a work-at-home program or any other business opportunity. The FTC’s definition of a business opportunity varies from the descriptions under the laws of the 26 states that regulate biz ops, and the States have varying definitions. These laws impose anti-fraud responsibilities on the sellers of biz ops, and some require registration and disclosure.
Intellectual Property in Internet Law:
Copyright protects authors’ rights to their material or literary works so that unauthorized persons cannot earn a profit, manipulate, or steal from it. As expected, copyright applies to online content just as it does to more physical work. It is instructive and advisable for party or individuals to place copyright and trademark signs on their websites and other resources to express their rights and serve as a caveat to the public not to steal, use or misuse their work without authorization.
Businesses should officially and adequately register their domain names to avoid cyber-squatting (i.e., buying domain names with company slogans). This may have overtaken by events as there are other options now besides .com.
Before we delve into the crucial principles of the Internet, you must know that all that is contained herein is just for general knowledge. It is advisable you contact an attorney knowledgeable in cyber law:
Are you are in need of an attorney versed in cyber law?
Are your facing any issue related to cyber law or connected to the use of the internet?
Do you need the counsel of an attorney before you start business on the internet?
Kindly post your job demand on the UpCounsel marketplace.
UpCounsel marketplace has lawyers who are well-versed in the intricacies of internet law. They comprehend how cyber law dynamics into multiple fields of law, such as technology, communications, security, and trademark/copyright, and can help resolve your internet-related legal issues
Essential principles of the Internet:
- You can officially register the copyright of your work through the United States Patent and Trademark Office, as well as equivalent state services and in any other jurisdictions.
- Avoid plagiarism even when you are spinning an article.
- Do not steal copyright, trademark, or patent, as it is illegal to profit it.
- Verify for inventive commons or fair use agreement before using another party’s photograph or other visual.
- It is impossible able to copyright website code.
- Demand for formal permission or acceptance from ghostwriters authorizing you to use their work exclusively for your means. Otherwise, they may reserve the rights to their work.
- It may be allowed to use a competitor’s name an AdWord marketing strategy; it’s advisable to consult with a lawyer on the phrasing or diction of the post.
- Online piracy is prohibited.
Legislation and Developments
- Lanham Act, or the Trademark Act of 1946: This legislation allows a person to make exclusive claims to registered trademarks.
- Digital Millennium Copyright Act: This is a U.S. copyright law that uses two of the 1996 treatises from the World Intellectual Property Organization.
- Anti-Cyber Squatting Consumer Protection Act (ACPA): This legislation is enacted to prevent persons from claiming domain names representative of other legal entities.
- Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: This Agreement seeks to expand copyright laws globally.
- Fair Use Doctrine: This doctrine allows you to represent other works for reflection or criticism.
- Uniform Domain Dispute Resolution Process: This is a procedure by which a party can prevent or resolve domain name disputes.
- No Electronic Theft Act: This legislation compels you to respect copyright whether or not you have profit in mind.
There are a plethora of relevant acts which include the Right of Publicity Act, the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act, Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, , and the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA).
Internet Laws Regarding Online Defamation:
Note that in law, libels are defamation in written form while slander is spoken defamation. Both state and federal laws govern libel and slander online.
You must also note the following principles of law as it relates to the Internet:
- To be successful as a plaintiff in a libel case, you must prove that the defamation was false, harmful, and negligent.
- Under the US Law, opinion may not necessarily be slander or libel, but if the opinion is mixed with untruths or manipulations of the facts, it can be considered defamation.
- Where the identity of an anonymous author is unknown, courts may order that the identity of such an author be uncovered in a libel lawsuit.
- Often, online libel cases are resolved without proceeding for a full court blown trial.
- Truth can be raised as a defense in slander and libel cases, with exceptions.
- Libelous publication may also be ordered to be eliminated from online forums.
- The rules may be different for eminent personalities. A Public figure may be required by law to present more credible evidence in a suit for slander or libel.
Internet Laws Regarding Online Privacy:
The First Amendment of US Constitution grants the right to free speech. There is a clear distinction between Privacy and free speech. There may not be an express provision for your privacy under the US Constitution; however, your privacy rights are protected to an extent in other extant legislation. A clear example is the revenge porn laws which provide a legal remedy for those whose ex-spouse or partners post unlawful depictions of them online without their consent.
There are also guiding principles that prohibit the publication of private data and protect information in certain areas or of a classified person(s), such as the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA), and the Financial Modernization Act. The Federal Trade Commission Act is empowered to hold businesses liable for damages where they fail to take steps to foil hacking.
Note that commercial sites in the state of California must abide by the requirements of online privacy laws mandatorily.
Data Use Notice:
Any site that collects personal data should include a data use notice. The notice ought to define the reasons and uses for the data obtained; including any data gathered through cookies or secreted programs. Where the information is admittedly used for promotional or business purposes or other reason(s) the user must give consent.
Laws Governing Online Privacy:
- The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act
- The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
- The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
- The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA)
UK Internet Law:
Electronic Commerce Regulations:
Series of electronic commerce regulations were introduced in 2002, and the UK Law was adopted the European E-commerce Directive. These enactments were meant to affirm that electronic contracts are legally binding and to allow the ability to control online commerce behavior transversely over Europe and enjoy the enforceability of the law.
Explicitly, these regulations and enactments were provided for businesses who sell online, by email, or by text. It also pertains to companies who advertise through these mediums or platforms, who accumulate content for customers, or who offer a communication average online.
The procedure provides what information about your business you need to give to clients and what guiding principles to abide by for your marketing. It also ensures that promotions should be recognizable and not seem like open content. They need to divulge the characterized business and the precise offer it holds out to the public or online users. It also allows online contracts and terms and conditions to be printable by customers. These policies also cover spam emails, that is, advertisements that are generally unnecessary and unsolicited and Customers should be able to recognize spam exclusively based on the subject line of an email; however, this is with exceptions of Spam via text messages.
The UK Data Protection Act 1998:
The UK Data Protection Act pertains to the processing of information concerning persons who are alive, and it about the data that covers the life of people on the internet. It regulates sites that collect peoples information.
Personal Information is information that relates to a living person who can be identified by that information or by that information combined with other data available to the website owner. This may include contact details and data about past events or personal views.
The Data Protection Act 2018 (DPA) controls how organizations, businesses or the government use your personal information. The Data Protection Act 2018 is the UK’s implementation of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
The Data Protection Act 2018 requires that an agreement be made providing for collation of data for persons can be kept for the shortest time essential to perform its purpose for the requested service.
A website owner can use Encryption to help maintain its security to protect people’s data.
What is Website Agreements?
Where you Copy the terms of the agreement of another website, apart from violating copyright law, you may navigate yourself into early crises directly on the basis that you may not be offering the same service or sell the same product. For instances, an agreement to run a news website may not entirely fit in for an agreement to run and operate an online store. You may consult with an experienced attorney will guide you and help you comprehend your rights and the laws as regards frauds, scams, missing data, violation, pictures, domain names, as well as the rights of the site users, etc.
Current Improvement in U.S. Internet Law:
The dynamic experience of cases, disputes and judicial pronouncement in different regions often spur Lawyers, policymakers, and governments departments and arms to consider the options of improvements on the resolution of new conflicts.
Some of the recent improvements as it pertains to internet law are highlighted as follows:
Cyber Squatting is illegal in the United States. It occurs when someone purchases a domain name of an already established entity or company with the intention of holding unto same and selling it to the existing copy to earn a massive amount of money. Cyber Squatting is done with the purpose of earning money from selling the domain name at a future date.
Internet Sex Crimes:
Sex Crime Offenders via the internet can now gain a conviction. An example is a creation, publications, and distribution of child pornography.
A California Federal Judge once ordered Apple to turn over the data of an iPhone5 which many considered as opposed to this anti-privacy rule, including the FBI.
Freedom of Speech:
Public freedom of speech as granted by the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution is a fundamental civil right in the United States. It is a healthy and positive attribute of democracy, and the U.S Supreme Court has recognized same. The Supreme Court recognized the internet as “a significantly important conduit of political communication” precisely on February 27, 2017. The freedom of speech enjoyed in the US is not available in many other climes, but through the internet, justice has been provided to the global community.
Consequently, the internet has been viewed as a springboard for political movements, for example, the Arab Spring. Some countries that restrict freedom of speech often do so by increasing censorship of the internet. Such nations include Iran, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and China.
However, the legal perspectives where some persons have exploited the freedom of speech are on issues and themes such as Privacy, Data collection, Fraud, Bullying, Harassment, and Terrorism.
Cell Phone Tracking Dismissed:
A New York state judge once to declined data in a court case hinged on evidence that emanated from a cell phone tracking device in the evaluation of a case and attaching a probative value to same. The court held that such intimate technology should not be used to gather information. This decision or ruling of the court may serve as judicial precedence in the future.
Net neutrality are policies that control how information is transmitted, sent or received in one state can affect others via a ripple effect it is particularly complicated area of internet law.
Net neutrality is the policies that control behaviors of internet telecommunication. It is the pathways and networks through which information is passed, set up, and managed by large companies. Data is communicated in small “packets” of data that are transmitted through infrastructures run by telecommunication companies, governments, and institutions.
The Law on Photo Sharing:
Photo sharing is quite common and prevalent. People share photos of themselves and their friends on social media for various reasons. Nevertheless, some mischievous people can steal pictures, obscurely post them and then request funds for their removal. Such behavior on social media can have foremost consequences on the world. A situation of this kind may be complicated to handle particularly where the perpetrator may be resident in a different country far from the other, and the bottle-necks of the various laws and jurisdiction can make the criminal get-away with it.
It is legally risking to mention names of people online, whether in websites or blogs. You may be liable in an action for so doing.
Copyright Demands for Photograph:
There are sites where photographs are allowed to be used free of charge. As a site owner, you must seek to know such sites and confirm the photograph before use. Some organizations that authored shared photos have claimed copyright and attempted to hold others accountable for using their work. Ensure you are completely aware of your rights; consult with a cyber law attorney before paying any dues demanded.
Social Media Privacy:
It is the corporate responsibility of both the public and the social media entity to preserve a person’s privacy and security. There are restrictions created to protect privacy even though social media allows the sharing of lives. For example, it may be permitted to share countries or place of residence but sharing exact addresses are often prohibited.
Hacking another Persons Computer with Criminal Intent:
Where another person accesses your computer system and uses same to perpetuate illegality virtually or physically; you may be absolved depending on the facts of the case.
Ethics of Science and Technology Law Articles:
It is yet to be a settled law on the issue of whether attorneys and experts who converse legal questions relating to science and technology such as biotechnology, chemical law, computer software, and data, etc are liable for the implications of their writings.
Electronic Communications Privacy Act:
This Privacy Act was developed in 1986. It ordinarily provides for government restraint on certain activities which were expanded, from the phone call recording to the monitoring of communications sent through the computer. The modification has an effect on Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, which was originally proposed to stop such witnesses to personal communication.
Online Material Liability:
The law protects Telecommunications companies as they are usually are not liable for damages caused by information being stolen and shared through their services.
Unlawful Access to Data:
It is a crime to access communications information without permission decisively or to go beyond the authorization given to you. Though there are exceptions provided in various subsections and proviso. It is also illegal to receive, change, or stop permitted access to information.
Successes of Copyright Defenders:
Successes recorded in copyright defenses usually inspire the protection of copyrights. In recent times victories were documented in the following cases: AEREO for their 2009 Cablevision ruling, GOOGLE for GOOGLE BOOKS, , and the Supreme Court KIRTSAENG ruling to stop international price discrimination for copyright holders.
Lessening of Keyword Advertising Trademark Lawsuits:
Lawsuits relating to Keyword advertising are seldom successful in court, and they do not generally pan out financially. Google has almost resolved its trademarks challenges to AdWords. Keyword advertising lawsuits will not be much of a concern in the nearest future.
The provision of 17 US Code Section 512 signifies that websites are not responsible for user-created copyright infringement. Conversely, Section 512(c) signifies that sites should be responsible for user-created copyright infringement, especially in instances where the demands of the copyright owners to take down the content are ignored.
In practice, courts had made it more likely for sites to be held liable for users who violate copyright laws, even when the copyright holder did not give notice. Therefore, Section 512 should not be regarded as a secure anchorage for internet operator until the law is settled.
Patent reform occurred during Congress enactment of the America Invents Act (AIA) in 2011. As at date, Congress is still considering other options on how to shut down abusive patent enforcement. For an instant, the state of Vermont enacted a law to stop patent trolling, and lawyers have instituted cases against senders of patent enforcement letters.
A Review of the 47 US Code Section 230:
Congress enacted the 47 USC 230 in 1996. Section 230 provides that websites are not responsible for third party content. This crucial law possesses a wide-reaching impact on internet operators. User-generated content sites profit from it, but plaintiffs with complaints have suffered losses on the other hand. The scope of Section 230 was expanded in 2010 through the Speech Act.
Outdated and Updated Cyber-law Legislation:
Some Cyber-Laws laws though extant are outdated due to updated standards and practices which have overtaken the legislation. We may consider some of them as highlighted hereunder:
- The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
The Violation of the CFAA no longer is a crime since a hacker must break a significant barrier to be charged. Currently, any sort of hacking or lying to enter into a system is illegal. A typical internet user could strictly be prosecuted for what is now considered normative online behavior. For instance, it is prohibited to access a protected computer, even though it is commonly done by many people who use their associates and friends devices. Users who fall short to follow a site’s terms of service could be charged under federal and state laws. The offense could be as simple a lie about your age etc.
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act integrated two copyright treatises with the view of controlling and manifesting rules of copyright online. Key movie studios consider the 1998 law as one that is not far-reaching; most people find the law objectionable due to its uneasiness. They are of the view that the internet is a place for freedom and that this might in some cases include violation of copyright.
The law also affects cell phones to the extent that you cannot unlock a cell phone because providers place within them their software. Changing the phone would mean altering the company software, thus violating their copyright.
- Electronic Communications Privacy Act 1986
This law restricts government taps in telecommunications. Service providers are prohibited from releasing data without consent, or to the police or FBI without a warrant, especially where the material has been stored for less than six months. At the passage of this law, most telecommunications data was not maintained for longer than thirty or ninety days.
In recent times some people keep messages or emails forever. Base on the six-month clause that is still in effect, police by way of a subpoena can quickly retrieve information.
More so, the ECPA permitted National Security Letters (NSLs), which are documents from the FBI that force the disclosure of online records. Practically in recent times, technology has evolved since the law was passed thereby making the law obsolete.
In recent times, phone bills normally list a few details of callers, such as the monthly charge and amount of data used, even though service providers have access to much more information which is deeply personal in nature but cannot divulge same without following the due process of law; this is converse to the previous practice for instance in 1986, telephone companies can provide records of phone calls with basic information such as the phone number and date or time of call.
The National Security Letters can now be used to call for data such as discovering web addresses a user visited, the size of an email, and time logged into a chat session. The FBI is prohibited from retrieving email content via an NSL, but metadata can be maneuvered to create or comprehend content. The FBI will attempt what they can within the ambit of this law.
In the same vein, the Justice Department can operate an aspect of the law to take delivery of the location data of cell phones without a warrant. This practice is obtainable irrespective the 2012 ruling of the Supreme that makes pronounce for a warrant to be sought and obtained precedent to placing a GPS device on a car.
The Prevalent Nature of Online Crime:
Notwithstanding the laws, standards, guiding principles, terms, policies, regulations, security screenings and practices of internet service providers and web owners, online crime is on the fast increase.
The fraudulent practices on the internet or social media users have increased and more complicated. The use of digital currencies such as BitCoin, Etherium etc have really aided and enhanced the activities of fraudsters and terrorist groups in the movement of funds without a trace by security agencies.
Internet operators must advocate for a review and of some obsolete laws and the enactment of updated laws. Science and technology experts must also come up with security options to protect venerable internet users. The blockchain technology is an excellent example of secure options that can protect online users. Anonymous transactions should be prohibited especially where it pertains to financial transactions online.
Many financial transactions will continue to take place online as some Asian nations have already approved the use of digital for normal banking transactions. Until anonymous transactions are prohibited, online transactions will remain a prime territory for criminal activity, despite its many defenses.
Furthermore, the varying regulations differing from nation to another will also pose a significant obstacle to successful apprehension and prosecution of criminals, terrorists, and fraudsters. Criminals can mask up themselves behind the net and across the globe to perpetuate their crime without being traced by authorities. As the Police continuously get better with their methods, laws must be updated and amended; standards and practices as well must be upgraded to meet up with the familiar and sophisticated challenges of this time and the nearest futures.
Pop Internet Laws:
Due to the widespread nature of abuses on the internet, the public has come up with its tenets. These “laws” should not be misguided for real legislation. Some of the rules enacted by the people are as follows: Pommer’s Law, DeMyer’s Laws, Cohen’s Law, The Law of Exclamation, Godwin’s Law, Rule 34 and 35, Skitt’s Law, Scopie’s Law, Danth’s Law (also known as Parker’s Law).
Online line users have agreed that POE’s Law which requires that all mocking of fundamentalist thought must include a winking smiley; else the public will deem the poster to be serious. Nathan Poe came up with this idea in 2005. This is the most popular rule enacted by the public.
Another example is the fake news occurrence of the 2016 election cycle which displays how easily lies and satire can be erroneous taken for truth and sincerity online. Several “news” stories have extensively disseminated on social media platforms that turned out to be pure fiction have caused so much confusion, damages, and serious consequences.
Cyber-law Policy Organizations:
It has become desirable for global companies, organizations, lawyers and online policymakers to develop to relate to the relevant fields of practice to decipher and implement new methods in regards to cyber-law.
- Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF): EFF has prevented the loss of freedom from the development of new devices. It was developed in 1990. EFF protects free speech, privacy, innovation, and consumer rights, digital rights.
- Adult Internet Law: Provides legal advice and counsel to adult businesses and aims to protect them from risk and fraud.
- Internet Society (ISOC): The Internet Society was established in 1992, it offers leadership training for Internet-linked standards, education, and policy. It inspires development and expansion and helps people use the internet to their profit.
Publications About Internet Law
There are numerous publications about internet policy, which can be used for furthering one’s knowledge, or for professionals who operate and administer or regulate the law. Examples are as stated hereunder:
- BitLaw Internet Law and Intellectual Property Rights: It provides information to enable their ongoing development. It recognizes that internet law and intellectual property rights are still in a state of change.
- ACLU Internet Censorship: ACLU’s publication advances a course that allows people to speak freely online just as in person. It also promotes the need for uncensored internet use. The Supreme Court upheld this wish in light of the First Amendment.
- Internet Governance Forum: IGF supports the United Nations Secretary-General. It assists to articulate the objectives of the World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) and to create a dialogue for numerous stakeholders. The Internet Governance Forum (IGF) is operated by the IGF Secretariat.
Examples and Categories of Internet Law in the United States of America
- 2017 Broadband Consumer Privacy Proposal repeal
- An act to affirm the policy of the United States regarding Internet governance
- Child Online Protection Act
- Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act
- Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act
- Cyber Threat Intelligence Integration Center
- Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act
- Digital Millennium Copyright Act
- Geolocation Privacy and Surveillance Act
- High-Performance Computing Act of 1991
- Internet Freedom and Nondiscrimination Act of 2006
- Internet Radio Equality Act
- Internet Safety Act
- Intimate Privacy Protection Act
- List of organizations with official stances on the SOPA and PIPA
- List of Members of the U.S. Congress who support or oppose SOPA/PIPA
- Online Protection and Enforcement of Digital Trade Act
- Personal Data Privacy and Security Act of 2009
- PROTECT IP Act
- Protecting Children from Internet Pornographers Act of 2011
- Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act
- Stop Online Piracy Act